Tag Archive: JAMA

Therapeutic Substitution Could Help Lower Prescription Drug Costs

  3 years ago     482 Views     Comments Off on Therapeutic Substitution Could Help Lower Prescription Drug Costs  

Therapeutic substitution is a practice that replaces chemically different compounds within the same class of medications for one another. A new study examined how using this practice could save money on prescription drug costs. Researchers from the Ohio State University reviewed records of more than 107,000 patients between 2010 and 2012 and looked at their prescription drug use and estimated how much money could be saved using therapeutic substitution. The authors report that an extra $73 billion was spent between 2010 and 2012 on brand name medications. Therapeutic substitution could help lower those costs. Although therapeutic substitution is somewhat controversial,…

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Does Working the Night Shift Increase the Risk of Heart Disease in Women?

  3 years ago     447 Views       

An estimated 15 million Americans do some kind of rotating shift work, including overnights, evenings and early morning shifts. But can this type of shift work increase the risk of coronary heart disease? A new study examined the link between rotating night shift work and heart disease in a group of female nurses. Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital used data from the Nurses' Health Studies (1 and 2), which followed participants for a twenty-four year period. They specifically looked at 189,000 women who reported their lifetime exposure to rotating night shift work. Over the course of the study period,…

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New Treatment for Advanced Melanoma Shows Promise

  3 years ago     515 Views     Comments Off on New Treatment for Advanced Melanoma Shows Promise  

In a new study, researchers from the University of California-Los Angeles studied tumor response and overall survival following the administration of a new treatment among patients with advanced melanoma. This agent, called pembrolizumab, is an antibody that blocks PD-1, a protein which prevents the body's immune system from attacking the cancer. The researchers tested pembrolizumab on more than 650 patients in North America, Europe and Australia. They looked at tumor response before and after treatment and found that the lesions were smaller in about one third of patients. In patients who responded to the treatment, seventy-five percent maintained the response…

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Better Air Quality Decreases Respiratory Symptoms in Children

  3 years ago     514 Views     Comments Off on Better Air Quality Decreases Respiratory Symptoms in Children  

Air pollution is associated with chronic respiratory health problems in children. A new study examined whether decreases in air pollution levels are associated with significant reductions in respiratory symptoms in children. Researchers from the University of Southern California followed over 4,600 children in eight Southern California communities across three different time periods from 1993-2012. In addition to monitoring air quality, they also looked at children with and without asthma, and whether they reported respiratory symptoms like bronchitis, congestion, phlegm production, or a daily cough for three months in a row, during the previous year. Along with significant improvements in air…

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Pain and Physical Function Improve after Weight-Loss Surgery

  3 years ago     549 Views     Comments Off on Pain and Physical Function Improve after Weight-Loss Surgery  

Among a group of patients with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery, a large percentage experienced improvement in pain, physical function, and walking capacity over 3 years, according to a new study. Severe obesity can be associated with joint pain and impaired physical function, like the ability to bend, lift, carry, and walk. Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh studied more than 2,200 patients from 10 U.S. hospitals. Patients filled out questionnaires about their pain and physical function before surgery and each year, for 3 years after surgery. Patients also participated in a 400 meter walking test. The results found…

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The Role of Vaccine Refusal in Recent Outbreaks of Measles and Pertussis

  3 years ago     501 Views     Comments Off on The Role of Vaccine Refusal in Recent Outbreaks of Measles and Pertussis  

Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have prompted clinicians, public health officials and the public to pay closer attention to the growing phenomenon of vaccine refusal. A new study looks at the role of vaccine refusal and the risk of measles and pertussis. In recent years, a substantial proportion of US measles cases occurred in people who were intentionally unvaccinated. Vaccine refusal was also found to be associated with an increased risk of pertussis in some populations.  

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Identifying Children at Risk for Persistent Symptoms after Concussion

  3 years ago     522 Views     Comments Off on Identifying Children at Risk for Persistent Symptoms after Concussion  

Approximately one-third of children who experience a concussion will experience persistent post-concussion symptoms. Researchers have developed a new clinical scoring system that may help predict which patients are at a higher risk for prolonged symptoms. Canadian researchers evaluated more than 3,000 patients, ages 5 to 18, who presented within 48 hours of an acute head injury. About thirty percent ended up with persistent post-concussion symptoms at 28 days. Researchers identified nine clinical factors that were predictive of post-concussive symptoms. These factors were then used in a twelve point risk score that included items like age, sex, history of migraines or…

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Long-Term Aspirin Use Associated with Decreased Cancer Risk

  3 years ago     514 Views     Comments Off on Long-Term Aspirin Use Associated with Decreased Cancer Risk  

According to a new study, low dose aspirin taken regularly was associated with a reduced risk for cancer. Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital examined data from two large national studies that include about 136,000 men and women who have been providing detailed information about their overall health for decades. Researchers identified 20,414 cancers among 88,084 women and 7,571 cancers among 47,881 men during a 32-year follow-up. Regular use of aspirin, two times or more per week, was associated with a 3 percent lower overall risk for cancer. This was mostly due to a 15 percent lower risk for gastrointestinal tract…

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Updated Criteria for Recognizing Life-Threatening Sepsis and Septic Shock

  3 years ago     598 Views     Comments Off on Updated Criteria for Recognizing Life-Threatening Sepsis and Septic Shock  

Sepsis is a clinical syndrome of physiologic, pathologic, and biochemical abnormalities caused by serious infection. Sepsis is a major public health concern. Besides being a leading cause of mortality worldwide, sepsis accounted for more than $20 billion of U.S. hospital costs in 2011. In addition, there is increasing awareness that patients who survive sepsis are often left with long-term disabilities. Updated definitions and clinical criteria for sepsis should help promote earlier recognition and more timely treatment of patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis. In a related study, researchers reviewed the electronic health records of more than one million patients to…

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Genetic Testing Among Women with Breast Cancer Increasing, Can Impact Treatment Decisions

  3 years ago     485 Views     Comments Off on Genetic Testing Among Women with Breast Cancer Increasing, Can Impact Treatment Decisions  

Rates of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have increased among younger women diagnosed with breast cancer, according to a new study. The study focused on nearly 900 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger. Researchers looked at rates of genetic testing, barriers to testing, and how the test results affected treatment decisions. In 2006, the rates of BRCA testing were in the seventy percent range and by 2012 that proportion rose to ninety-five percent. While the majority of women reported being tested for BRCA 1 and 2, many were not, and a small minority reported…

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