Tag Archive: JAMA

Diets with More Plant Protein Linked to Lower Risk of Death

  2 years ago     377 Views     Comments Off on Diets with More Plant Protein Linked to Lower Risk of Death  

According to a new study, eating a diet that includes more plant-based protein is associated with a lower risk of death, while eating more animal protein is associated with a higher risk of death, especially among adults with at least one unhealthy behavior such as smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight or living a sedentary lifestyle. Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital examined how each protein source influenced long-term health. They looked at more than 131,000 adults participating in two long-running national health studies. Participants provided 25 to 30 years of detailed data on diet, lifestyle, and medical conditions. Researchers reviewed detailed…

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Device Reduces Risk of Brain Injury After Heart Valve Replacement

  2 years ago     391 Views     Comments Off on Device Reduces Risk of Brain Injury After Heart Valve Replacement  

Patients who might benefit from a heart valve replacement but are too ill for open heart surgery can sometimes undergo a less invasive procedure known as transcatheter aortic valve implantation or "TAVI".  About 10% of patients undergoing TAVI can experience small strokes and related brain injury as a complication. A new study found that the use of a cerebral protection device, which captures debris dislodged from blood vessels during the TAVI procedure, reduced the number and volume of brain lesions seen on MRI. Researchers from the University of Leipzig Heart Center, Germany studied 100 patients with an average age of…

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Marijuana Exposure Increases Among Colorado Kids Since Legalization

  2 years ago     444 Views     Comments Off on Marijuana Exposure Increases Among Colorado Kids Since Legalization  

Since the legalization of marijuana in Colorado, there has been an increase in hospital visits and calls to regional poison centers due to unintentional marijuana exposure among young children. Researchers from the University of Colorado evaluated the number of children with exposures before and after recreational marijuana was legalized. Between 2009 and 2015 they found a rise in the annual number of unintentional pediatric exposures. On average, these children were about two years old.  Most children ingested the drug in edible forms such as candies and baked goods.  Almost half of the patients seen in the children's hospital in the…

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Benefits of Bariatric Surgery for Obese Teens

  2 years ago     435 Views     Comments Off on Benefits of Bariatric Surgery for Obese Teens  

A new study suggests that teens undergoing bariatric surgery can experience benefits in terms of walking speed and joint pain.  Researchers from the University of Minnesota School of Medicine are tracking long-term outcomes for 242 teens that underwent bariatric surgery at five centers around the United States. For the current study, researchers specifically focused on improvements in mobility and pain related to muscles and joints is a subset of 206 patients.  All patients participated in a quarter mile walk test before and after surgery at six months, twelve months and twenty-four months. Improvements in time to complete the walk, resting…

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Increased Risk for Chronic Opioid Use After Surgery

  2 years ago     453 Views     Comments Off on Increased Risk for Chronic Opioid Use After Surgery  

Chronic use of prescription pain medications known as opioids is increasing in the United States. New research shows that a portion of patients undergoing several common surgical procedures may be at increased risk for chronic opioid use several months after surgery. Researchers from Stanford University School of Medicine reviewed the records of more than 641,000 patients who underwent one of 11 common operations and were not taking opioid pain medication during the year prior to surgery. They found that some patients were at an increased risk for chronic opioid use following surgery, with the risks ranging from about one and…

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Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide Increasingly Being Legalized

  2 years ago     402 Views     Comments Off on Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide Increasingly Being Legalized  

According to a new study, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) in the United States, Canada, and Europe are increasingly being legalized, but remain relatively uncommon.  Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania examined the legal status of both procedures and available data on attitudes and practices from the late 1940s to present day. They found that public support for euthanasia and PAS in the United States had increased through the 1990s, but has since plateaued. More than 70 percent of cases of euthanasia and PAS worldwide involved patients with cancer. Typical patients are older, white, and well-educated. Motivations for requesting PAS…

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Reducing Complications of High Blood Pressure in Older Adults

  2 years ago     432 Views     Comments Off on Reducing Complications of High Blood Pressure in Older Adults  

About 75 percent of people aged 75 and older have high blood pressure, which can increase the risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke. A recent study examined what the best target blood pressure is to reduce the risks of these complications in older adults. Researchers from Wake Forest School of Medicine tested whether a systolic blood pressure target of 120 millimeters of mercury was more effective than 140 millimeters for reducing the risk of heart attack, heart failure, stroke and death. They enrolled more than 2,600 older adults (75 years and older), all of whom were living in…

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U.S. Obesity Rates Increase for Women, But Not Men

  3 years ago     429 Views     Comments Off on U.S. Obesity Rates Increase for Women, But Not Men  

According to a new study, in 2013 to 2014 there was an increase in obesity rates among U.S. women but not U.S. men. The overall prevalence of obesity during this time period was 40 percent among women and 35 percent among men. Researchers from the National Center for Health Statistics examined trends in obesity among U.S. adults from 2005 to 2014. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), researchers looked at a sample of more than 13,000 men and 13,000 women. They found no recent changes in obesity or extreme obesity rates among men, but saw…

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Rates of Obesity and Diabetes Lower in More Walkable Neighborhoods

  3 years ago     428 Views     Comments Off on Rates of Obesity and Diabetes Lower in More Walkable Neighborhoods  

Despite targeted efforts to reduce obesity through diet and exercise, these rates continue to rise. A new study from Ontario, Canada found that obesity and diabetes rates were lower in more walkable neighborhoods compared to less walkable neighborhoods, where they saw an increase in these rates. Researchers from St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto studied almost 9,000 neighborhoods in Southern Ontario looking at walkability scores, along with government health data and survey results during a twelve-year period. They examined whether neighborhoods that were more walkable experienced a slower increase in obesity and diabetes compared to less walkable neighborhoods.

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Physicians and Surrogate Decision Makers for Critically Ill Patients Often Disagree on Patient’s Prognosis

  3 years ago     379 Views     Comments Off on Physicians and Surrogate Decision Makers for Critically Ill Patients Often Disagree on Patient’s Prognosis  

Many critically ill patients are unable to make medical decisions for themselves. Family members or close friends are often asked to serve as surrogate decision makers. However, expectations about a patient's overall prognosis sometimes differ between physicians and surrogate decision makers. Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh enrolled 99 physicians and 229 surrogates who made decisions for 174 critically ill patients in a new study. They found that in about half of the cases, surrogates were substantially more optimistic about a patient's prognosis compared to physicians and that the physician's estimates were much more accurate than that of surrogates.

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